¿Qué es la ilustración?

Qu es la ilustraci n Kant caracteriza la Ilustraci n como un hecho un proceso que se est desarrollando pero la presenta tambi n como una tarea y una obligaci n Desde el primer p rrafo hace notar que el hombre es por s mi

  • Title: ¿Qué es la ilustración?
  • Author: Immanuel Kant Michel Foucault
  • ISBN: 9789587146318
  • Page: 395
  • Format: Paperback
  • ¿Qué es la ilustración?

    Kant caracteriza la Ilustraci n como un hecho, un proceso que se est desarrollando pero la presenta tambi n como una tarea y una obligaci n Desde el primer p rrafo hace notar que el hombre es por s mismo responsable de su estado de minor a de edad Es preciso, por tanto, concebir que no podr salir de l sino mediante un cambio que operar l mismo sobre s mismo Kant caracteriza la Ilustraci n como un hecho, un proceso que se est desarrollando pero la presenta tambi n como una tarea y una obligaci n Desde el primer p rrafo hace notar que el hombre es por s mismo responsable de su estado de minor a de edad Es preciso, por tanto, concebir que no podr salir de l sino mediante un cambio que operar l mismo sobre s mismo De un modo significativo, Kant dice que esta Aufkl nrung tiene una divisa Wahlspruch ahora bien, la divisa es un rasgo distintivo por el que se hace reconocer, y es tambi n una consigna que se da uno a s mismo y que se propone a los otros Y cu l es esta consigna Sapere aude, ten el valor, la audacia de saber Por lo tanto, es necesario considerar que la Aufkl rung es a la vez un proceso del que los hombres forman parte colectivamente y un acto de valor que se ha de efectuar personalmente Ellos son, a la vez, elementos y agentes del mismo proceso Pueden ser los actores de dicho proceso en la medida en que forman parte de l y este se produce en la medida en que los hombres deciden ser los actores voluntarios del mismo Michel Foucault

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    One thought on “¿Qué es la ilustración?

    1. Foad

      این که بخشی بدین بزرگی از انسان ها، با آن که دیریست طبیعت آنان را به بلوغ طبیعی رسانده، باز به دلخواه تا دم مرگ کودک می مانند و دیگران چنین به سادگی خود را سرپرست ایشان می کنند، علتی جز کاهلی و بزدلی ندارد. راستی که کودک بودن چه آسان است! اگر کتابی داشته باشم که جای فهمم را بگیرد [...]

    2. Ali

      :شعار روشنگری اینست!در به کارگیری فهمِ خود، شهامت داشته باشنوشته ای کوتاه اما سراسر نکته

    3. KamRun

      روشنگری همانا به‌در آمدن انسان از حالت کودکی‌ای است که گناهش به گردن خود اوست. یعنی ناتوانی از به کار گرفتن فهم خود بدون راهنمایی دیگران. این که بخشی بزگی از انسان‌ها، با آن که دیریست طبیعت آنان را به بلوغ رسانده، باز به دلخواه تا دم مرگ کودک می‌مانند و دیگران چنین به سادگی خ [...]

    4. Scot

      I read Kant in college and for some reason he never clicked for me, everyone assumed I would like him but every time I tried to read him something seemed off. This essay is a perfect illustration of that overriding feeling. I was immediately drawn in as Kant described enlightenment as emergence from self-imposed nonage (the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance). Sounds great, right up my alley, yes we can free our minds and think for ourselves, you go Kant, go. Yet [...]

    5. Skyler Myers

      "Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! 'Have courage to use your own reason!'- that is the motto of enlightenment."PROs* Very well argued* Clear and hard to disagree withCONs* Short so not all thoughts are full [...]

    6. Meike

      I would feel a little silly rating Kant, so let me just say that this is one of the texts I first read in high school and that I now re-read - unsurprisingly, it's still relevant. In fact, it's more relevant than one could possibly wish for, as I am sure we all know some people we would love to hit over the head with a copy of this while yelling "sapere aude".

    7. Ali Reda

      Enlightenment is the human being’s emergence from his self-incurred minority. Minority is inability to make use of one’s own understanding without direction from another. This minority is self-incurred when its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! [dare to be wise] Have courage to make use of your own understanding! is thus the motto of enlightenment.Thus a public can achieve enlightenment only sl [...]

    8. David Sarkies

      The Freedom to think for oneself17 January 2013 Okay, this pamphlet (it is way too short to be called a book, but still there is an entry on , so while I will not count it as a part of the 2013 reading challenge, I will still write a commentary on it) is probably where the term 'Freethinker' came from. My first encounter with a so called 'freethinker' was in the Adelaide Railway Station when I was handing out invitations to the church carol service and I ended up speaking to a man who termed him [...]

    9. Petergiaquinta

      At least you don't have to wait long for the answer. Kant gives it to us in the first sentence of this short pamphlet written in 1784: "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity." And what's immaturity, Mr. Kant? "Immaturity is the inability to use one's own understanding without the guidance of another. This immaturity is self-incurred if its cause is not lack of understanding, but lack of resolution and courage to use it without the guidance of another. The motto of en [...]

    10. Yann

      En 1783, dans une revue Berlinoise parait un article : "proposition visant à ne plus déranger les prêtres pour célébrer les mariages", dans lequel l'auteur s'insurge contre la religion et ses effets délétères sur le peuple, et s'enthousiasme de sa prochaine disparition. Il n'en faut pas plus pour provoquer la réaction du pasteur Zöllner, qui se questionne sur l'opportunité de procéder à ce changement. Il est d'ailleurs un défenseur des lumières, mais voilà : court-on le risque d' [...]

    11. JJ

      I am very interested in Immanuel Kant's philosophy, and I've watched several lectures on the subject. Something in his morality strikes a chord with me, and I like to think that insofar as is regularly possible, I try to live by Kant's values. This, however, is the first volume by Kant himself that I have actually read.Kant undoubtedly has a formidable reputation as a writer that inspires confusion and produces interminable sentences. In this collection of essays on political theory, he lived up [...]

    12. Viji(Bookish endeavors)

      'Dare to use your own brain'-it seems a good proposition. What else it is for.?! Kant's criticism of the society was good but the actions he asked to take seemed a bit passive and that's not my cup of tea. It was a good read,a perfect view into one of the most prominent thinkers who ever lived.

    13. Harry Doble

      A foundational text of the Enlightenment. Kant sees mankind's immaturity as a refusal to use our own understanding and to allow others do our thinking for us. He believes in slow social reform so that minds up to and including the highest leaders have time to adjust to change. The mechanism of this is the freedom to to make public use of one's reason in all matters. We should be encouraged to say and do what we like in the public sphere. Kant makes a distinction between this and the use of reaso [...]

    14. Ali

      من ترجمه ی یدالله موقن رو خواندم. جلسه ای که در اصفهان تشکیل شد و درباب همین مقاله ایشون سخنرانی کردن.از نزدیک ایشون خیلی دوست داشتنی بودن:)

    15. Nare

      In "What is Enlightenment?," Kant follows the ideas that progress in thinking is not good for individuals, but will have an effect on society. Enlightenment and necessary knowledge that constitutes it creates the foundation for change in society. When people are more educated, they realize that they no longer want to be subjects to the kings. Kant follows that enlightenment works to make the world more of a home for human beings because it introduces reason. People will have the freedom and educ [...]

    16. Carolyn

      I'd like to suggest a new title for this work: "I Kant (Without God)". An argument made in bad faith without any legitimately expounded argument in regards to religion. Appropriate for the social context within which it was written, but this clearly falls flat in a modernized and pluralistic society. There is a highly paradoxical view of freedom as the relinquishing of certain natural individual liberties, typical of early-era Enlightenment thinkers. As a work of historical reference, perhaps, t [...]

    17. ainunsailah

      Membebaskan manusia dari ketidakmatangan. Kepercayaan terhadap kefahaman sendiri dan kemampuan akal. Ada perkara yang harus diperhalusi dan boleh dibincangkan dari sudut Islam. Sejauh mana Islam menggariskan kebebasan. Darjat akal fikiran dalam Islam? Dan sebagainya.

    18. Kichi

      Mr. Kant, sorry but we're doing the best we can with what seems to be a minority. 1784 is not too long ago in that respect.

    19. Gerardo

      Il saggio di Kant invita l'uomo a ragionare da solo, senza dover subire i dettami del potere. Allo stesso tempo, non promuove una totale libertà d'azione: anche se tutti debbano avere la libertà di pensare ciò che si vuole, nella pratica bisogna ubbidire affinché la società non si disgreghi sotto il giogo dei personalismi. Il commento di Foucault mostra come la riflessioni di Kant apra a nuove conseguenze storiche: un filosofo ci parla di come il suo tempo storico sia diverso dagli altri. F [...]

    20. Scarlett

      I like Kant, even though he seems to be the opposite of cool. There are some decently argued ideas here and who can deny that "think for yourself" is as good advice as any?

    21. Francisco H. González

      A pesar del título, ¿Qué es la Ilustración? y tras dar respuesta a la misma, el meollo de este libro versa sobre la Paz Perpetua, a la que aspira no solo Kant (Königsberg, 1724-1804), dado que muchos antes que él habían ya escrito sobre este tema, sobre las vías para conseguir tal noble propósito.Si el hombre es un lobo para el hombre y existe cierta tendencia a resolver los problemas con el uso de la violencia, pues siempre anida en nuestro interior el conflicto y la guerra, Kant antep [...]

    22. Michael Ledezma

      Setting the practical philosophy to work. Kant, y u such a pillar of moral infallibility? Public Right: All actions affecting the rights of other human beings are wrong if their maxim is not compatible with being made public. The current-day parallels are just astonishing. Or are they? Given that the formal conditions of human subjectivity have not changed, even to the point that we still pay lip service to some vestige of humanist universal right of man (underlying core of bad-faith surface lib [...]

    23. Amal Shoeib

      To me , Kant is more of a liberal philosopherHe defines Enlightenment as the one's ability to free himself of self-incurred tutelage. Moreover, When a person is willing to impose the laws on himself by himself without any guidance or interference from the government,Church etc, then that person is enlightenedA remarkable way to define Enlightenment I partly agree with Kant's notion and I strongly disagree with him when he said that everyone has the free will to follow the rules they want and tha [...]

    24. Annie

      Kant writes about how no one: no employer, not even the church or a king, can keep man from shaking off his immaturity and becoming enlightened. He focuses on freedom of religion in this essay and says that while they aren't in an enlightened age (in 1784) they are in an age of enlightenment. The difference is that man wasn't yet able to understand and guide themselves confidently in matters of religion, they still needed guidance. But the ability for man to slowly change and become able to unde [...]

    25. Josefin

      This book is quite interesting. It answers much more than the question in the title, but it's all philosophy and about human nature, and so it's not as much a sidetrack as it's an extention. I might not agree with every opinion of the author, and I might think he is a bit opptimistic about humankind's development, but the fact that people have been pessimistic already by 1784, and most likely before that, since the author feels the need to contradict what he seems to consider as the general opin [...]

    26. GONZA

      ".A high degree of civil freedom seems advantageous to a people's intellectual freedom, yet it also sets up insuperable barriers to it. Conversely, a lesser degree of civil freedom gives intellectual freedom enough room to expand to its fullest extent. Thus once the germ on which nature has lavished most care—man's inclination and vocation to think freely—has developed within this hard shell, it gradually reacts upon the mentality of the people, who thus gradually become increasingly able to [...]

    27. Mary

      The thesis of this essay is in the first paragraph: dare to know. He thinks custom and cowardice keeps us from thinking for ourselves. Writing under a stable Monarchy but in the period between the American and French Revolutions, Kant is sure that change will come gradually! :). His idea is that Enlightenment Man will use his reason in one of two ways: private reason where a priest decides to preach within the canons of his church and public reason where he might publish a tract questioning arti [...]

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